S.O.S. Samaruc

Restoring coastal lagoons for the conservation of a critically endangered freshwater fish

Valencia toothcarp or samaruc (Valencia hispanica) is a small freshwater fish, endemic to Eastern Iberian coastal wetlands. It is restricted to a few small areas in Catalonia and Valencia, and is critically endangered due to the degradation and destruction of its habitat, and because of the competition with Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), an invasive fish.

Samaruc (Valencia hispanica) ©Ferran Aguilar
Samaruc (Valencia hispanica) ©Ferran Aguilar

Less than 20 wild populations remain, and they are geographically isolated. Captive breeding projects are being carried out but protection of its habitat is inadequate.

This threatened species needs clean, lowland springs and does not tolerate high salinity levels. These springs have suffered intense degradation because of pollution, destruction and the introduction of non-native species.

Currently, well preserved coastal lagoons can be refugia for samaruc and other endangered fishes, such as the Iberian toothcarp (fartet).

Coastal lagoons are considered habitats of priority interest by the European Union (*1150 Coastal Lagoons).

Coastal lagoons provide many valuable ecological functions, such as the buffering of sea–storms.

Many European coastal lagoons have either disappeared or are degraded.

©Dani Sierra enfocat.catPort de l'Estany
Torrent del Pi lagoon, that hosts a population of samaruc ©Dani Sierra
Torrent del Pi lagoon
Torrent del Pi lagoon, after the restoration ©Dani Sierra

Goals of the project

With the funding of Andrena, the organization Paisatges Vius has successfully restored several coastal lagoons, creating 4 new populations of samaruc. Captive-bred samarucs have been released in these lagoons, after an ecosystem assessment.

  • L’Estany Tort Restoration of the lagoon, that had disappeared during the 70s. Introduction of samarucs from the breeding facilities at the Icthyological Centre in the Delta de l’Ebre Natural Park. NEW POPULATION
  • Llacuna del Port de l’Estany Restoration of the lagoon, formerly disappeared due to sediment loading and disconnected from the sea by a road. Introduction of captive-bred samarucs. NEW POPULATION
  • Llacuna de Torrent del Pi Restoration of two more ponds in this network, increasing habitat size. Samarucs have colonized naturally this lagoon. The preexisting population of samaruc has been strengthened.
  • Llacuna de Cala Justell Restoration of a coastal lagoon. Introduction of captive-bred samarucs. NEW POPULATION
  • Ichtyological Centre –  Delta de L’Ebre Natural Park Equipment and materials have been provided to support their toothcarp captive breeding program.
  • Llacuna de l’Illa de Buda this large new lagoon, located in the mouth of the Ebro river, can sustain a big population of samaruc. NEW POPULATION
  • Ullals de l’Aigua Fresca. Ullals are freshwater springs, which are samaruc’s original habitat. Most of these springs have been disappeared or are severely degraded.

Specific hydrogeological studies have guided all the works, in order to ensure natural hydrological flows for the restored lagoons. Their environmental status is monitored using QAELS e2010 , an index of water quality assessment in Mediterranean wetlands based on crustacean and insect assemblages, and ECELS, an indicator for the general conservation status of the ecosystem, based on morphological aspects. 

Fish surveys are carried out twice a year, and have shown that samaruc is breeding well in the newly restored lagoons, and the new populations are thriving.



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